Greg Glassman #16 | Live Call In – Greg on Chief Marketing Officers

Sevan Matossian (00:00):

Son of a bitch. I got the wrong glasses. Bam. We’re live. Bam. I want to have a vitamin C expert on Caleb in the his house. Alright. Alright, let’s do it. Caleb. What’s up dude? What’s up dude? Hey. Hey. Shoot. Someone needs to tell Dave his week in review. He didn’t have the headset on, right? Shit. Alright. Good morning everyone. Rambler. Hi. You’re going to run and tell Dave that right now. He’s in the room next door. Zachary cadets daily training, a dating trip. So glad we get Greg on every week. I know. Crazy, right? I’m not sure what exactly I’m going to do with this in information, but I find it absolutely flattering and fills me with pride. I guess I’ll continue later. Hey.

Greg Glassman (01:10):

Hey. What’s up dude? How are you?

Sevan Matossian (01:12):

Awesome, how are you?

Greg Glassman (01:14):

I’m going to turn my volume up. I’m good, man. Living the life, right?

Sevan Matossian (01:18):

Say it again.

Greg Glassman (01:19):

Living the life.

Sevan Matossian (01:20):

Yeah. I would’ve played, wish we would played from Bob Marley when you came on. Unite something along. Yeah.

Greg Glassman (01:29):

We’re hearing a fair amount of reggae music.

Sevan Matossian (01:33):

Seychelles that’s off the coast of Kenya.

Greg Glassman (01:38):

Yeah. In Somalia

Sevan Matossian (01:40):

And belongs to the continent of Africa.

Greg Glassman (01:45):


Sevan Matossian (01:46):

Is it the tip of a volcano or something? Why is it sticking out? I know you like stuff like that.

Greg Glassman (01:52):

Yeah. In the Indian Ocean, all of the islands, with the exception of the Sey shells are a volcanic made of igneous rock and the volcanic remnants. But this is a big chunk of granite that I guess just through sublimation got thrusted up out of the ocean and formed this series of islands absent volcanic activity.

Sevan Matossian (02:18):

What are the implications that, I know it’s like you’re some sort of geologist, but what are the implications that it’s on granite, like there’s oil under there or it’s I

Greg Glassman (02:30):

Have no

Sevan Matossian (02:30):

Idea. Can grow food or

Greg Glassman (02:33):

Yeah, I don’t know. I don’t know. But where we are in Arizona, we’re on the very edge of that Colorado plateau and it’s one of the largest geological formations on earth, bigger than any mountain. And the belief is that the heart of Guana land was that plateau. But anyways, it’s all the dirt and earth of Arizona is a decomposed granite. And so I recognize the look of it all

Sevan Matossian (03:06):

And Kenya had just amazing people. Exceedingly nice, polite, spoke to Queen’s English. Is it like that? There

Greg Glassman (03:15):

It is. It is

Sevan Matossian (03:17):

Everyone. What did the people look like? Is French their native language? Are they black?

Greg Glassman (03:21):

Yeah, they’re Creole and they’re kind of European featured, very often dark-skinned people and that and just black folks. But our captain on the boat, his father was Swiss and German or Yeah, Swiss and German. And his mother was African and you can see it. He looks like black buddy Holly with the glasses.

Sevan Matossian (03:56):

Why do I think Creole are kind of hard to understand? Real white people that are in Louisiana that eat crayfish.

Greg Glassman (04:07):

There is that, but

Sevan Matossian (04:08):

There’s those people too.

Greg Glassman (04:10):

Yeah, throughout wherever the French found colonial success, you end up with a remnant population that speaks Creole, it seems. So we saw it in St. Lucia, Belize, I mean everywhere. But you hear a lot of Creole here and there’s Creole restaurants and cooking and it’s

Sevan Matossian (04:29):

Great. Okay, last dumb question is Creole, does it sound English or it’s a kind of,

Greg Glassman (04:35):

It sounds very French.

Sevan Matossian (04:36):


Greg Glassman (04:37):

Okay. It sounds very French.

Sevan Matossian (04:39):

So it’s like a French dialect almost even.

Greg Glassman (04:43):

I would think that’d be fair to say.

Sevan Matossian (04:45):


Greg Glassman (04:46):

But I mean it’s close. You can kind of figure it out if even a little bit of French, a little bit of Creole.

Sevan Matossian (04:59):

It’s got a country. Do they have their own currency?

Greg Glassman (05:03):

They have their own currency, the rupe, and they’ve got a new government that eliminated all kinds of corruption is the story. And I bought in. It’s a good place.

Sevan Matossian (05:15):

I didn’t know they had enough people to have corruption. Isn’t it tiny?

Greg Glassman (05:18):

It’s very tiny. Yeah.

Sevan Matossian (05:24):

Judy Reed, good evening. Good evening. Hi Ken Walters. Good evening Greg and Sev Vaughn. Sev Vaughn. Hey, good evening.

Greg Glassman (05:38):

It’s seven in the morning here, seven in the evening there. And boy is that convenient when you’re trying to interface with back home?

Sevan Matossian (05:46):

12 hours.

Greg Glassman (05:47):

12 hours? Man,

Sevan Matossian (05:49):

I think our meeting is on the same time.

Greg Glassman (05:51):

You don’t have to play with your watch. How far away is Armenia from where you sit?

Sevan Matossian (05:57):

Crazy. I don’t know that. Right? Lemme see Armenia. And then would I just go to maps

Greg Glassman (06:05):

10,000, 200 miles away? Sevi, you and I were due to leave Mombasa once and we had a flight into from Mombasa to Nairobi on Somalia Airlines. And I know you know the story, but I’m sharing it through you, with you everyone. But Somalia Airlines, the jet looked like this duct tick together and they didn’t even have a computerized flight manifesto. They had a yellow legal tablet and she identified our names in Arabic, which was a site to see. And then the flight got canceled, which was somewhat of a relief and we were having trouble working a flight back home. I’m not going to give all the details of this someone, it was kind of funny, but

Sevan Matossian (06:50):

Was that we were talking to the lady outside the airport. We were there several times, but it was like the booth outside the airport, her own glass private booth.

Greg Glassman (06:58):

And we were just trying to get home and finally and we’re like, you got anything to Phoenix? No la No. And so realizing that we were 12 hours away, I just got the idea, what’s the farthest fucking place you can send me? And it turned out it was Chicago, so we took it.

Sevan Matossian (07:19):


Greg Glassman (07:21):

And so we went home via Chicago and then when in Chicago, finagle a flight to San Francisco. What

Sevan Matossian (07:29):

Your thinking on that? What if she would’ve said St. Petersburg? What was your logic on that? I’m not,

Greg Glassman (07:33):

Well, I’m on the exact wrong side of the earth. Home is on the top and I’m on the bottom and the farthest away you can get me, I’ll deal with it again. From there.

Sevan Matossian (07:44):

I feel like I looked at a globe once and that if you drilled straight down from Santa Cruz through the center of the earth, you do come out in Kenya or something. Oh, Caleb, I can see it doesn’t matter, but I can see the reflection of the screen in your glasses. So if you have any porn open, I don’t know. Good to know. Yeah, just be

Greg Glassman (08:05):

Just in case.

Sevan Matossian (08:07):

Yeah, just in case. I don’t want you to get canceled. Canceled, if you know what I mean. God

Greg Glassman (08:15):

Forbid the new speaker of the house has a porn monitoring app on his phone and computer and then a responsibility partner for monitoring and it reports to your responsibility partner, any kind of inappropriate stuff you’re looking at. And his partner’s, this 17 year old son,

Sevan Matossian (08:36):

No shit.

Greg Glassman (08:38):

And I was just like, oh man, it should have been some really private shit.

Sevan Matossian (08:45):

I think I like that guy. What’s the guy’s name?

Greg Glassman (08:49):

Johnson is it?

Sevan Matossian (08:50):

Can you Google his name? Johnson and then porn Caleb. No shit. A responsibility. Yeah, I like the guy. That doesn’t seem right to do that with your son.

Greg Glassman (09:02):

It seems a little weird to me.

Sevan Matossian (09:03):


Greg Glassman (09:05):

I was thinking maybe he’s doing it for his son and participating and he said he was happy to report that his son wasn’t looking at any porn at all

Sevan Matossian (09:19):

In the video dug up by X user’s receipt Maven last week, Johnson described his use of covenant eyes as an app that monitors activity on computer devices and reports potentially pornographic content to a breed predetermined ally. What does this mean? In the video dug up by X users receipt, that means like Twitter users, receipts, Maven.

Greg Glassman (09:43):

He had openly bragged about the thing. He was proud of it and I don’t think it’s shameful, it’s just it’s auto enough, but

Sevan Matossian (09:51):

I don’t think shamefully, but it’s weird

Greg Glassman (09:53):

That crowd that’s driving around in their Prius is thinking they’re avoiding a doomsday climate scenario with their mask on to protect the world’s health. Confident in their belief that there’s no difference between men and women. So men should be in women’s sports. That crowd will lock onto this and it will be the issue and that’s why it’s making the press. It is because what we don’t want to talk about is the real issues.

Sevan Matossian (10:21):

Oh, what is their problem with it? Why doesn’t the Prius drivers it?

Greg Glassman (10:29):

It’s the same thing that’s for you. It’s just kind of a weird thing,

Sevan Matossian (10:33):

But it’s not weird relative to asking a man who has the unquenchable desire to dress up as a woman and read story time to kids and for parents to invite those people into their schools and protest and fight for their rights to read to your kids. That’s fucking weird. I can explain why that’s weird.

Greg Glassman (10:54):


Sevan Matossian (10:55):

There’s no good intention there.

Greg Glassman (10:58):

The problem is that it’s going to be a distraction. It’s funny and I think it’s funny and that will be discussed instead of the issues. They can’t have discussion on the issues. It’s almost like every single aspect of Trump that we all find deplorable and there’s a lot to find deplorable and most of it is insignificant to the greater issues.

Sevan Matossian (11:41):

CrossFit. Andrew Hiller, who you met at the BSI know Andrew. Okay, and then you met him at the Chicago game. He made a video on CrossFits chief marketing officer.

Greg Glassman (11:57):

Yeah, I haven’t seen that. Send it to me.

Sevan Matossian (12:00):

Okay. And he, it’s the first, I mean I guess he was hired 11 months ago according to Andrew’s video, and I didn’t know much about him, but one of the things that is interesting is he has in Andrew points this out, he has a post of Greta and it says, thank you for being a great leader. He has the post of the black square and it says, I’ve taken off my hashtags not to disrupt from the event. He has an orange square that’s like all this anti-gun stuff without talking about what the effects would be if you outlawed guns in the United States. He has pictures of himself wearing two masks. He posted a picture of his vaccine card, he brags about how he quarantined for 12 weeks. He talks about how he worked at Twitter and helped build Twitter up for nine years and now when Elon bought it, it was a shame and he was going to get off of Twitter, which he didn’t, and it goes on and on.

Greg Glassman (12:56):

So he’s got all what he thinks are the perfect credentials to lead and market for a large organization, a successful international business, and he comes across a large cautery of truly authentic people for over time. He comes and realizes he doesn’t have a fucking thing in the world for him. There’s nothing about a real person. The guy in the Prius wearing his mask to avoid climate and health disaster. There’s nothing to offer. He doesn’t live in the real world. He lives in the postmodern world where politically and deliberately there’s been a suspension of intellect and morality. That’s what he lives in. And I can, I’ll tell you right now, he’s condemning Israel for what they’re doing for their liberation of the Palestinian people from the horrors and terrors of Hamas. He’s condemning it. I promise it. It’s all in a package. This is my new thing. We see these people. I see people in Priuses wearing masks driving by themselves, and I can tell you everything about ’em. I know they think there’s no difference between men and women. I know they think that diversity is more important than merit, on and on. It’s an easy list of things and each of them requires a suspension of intellect so that you’ll swallow I morality.

Sevan Matossian (14:24):

So like the Greta number,

Greg Glassman (14:25):

This is the same people. This is the same mindset that ignored Hitler’s attempt to eliminate the Jewish people from the face of the earth New York Times.

Sevan Matossian (14:36):

It is the same mindset.

Greg Glassman (14:38):


Sevan Matossian (14:39):

The same logic, the

Greg Glassman (14:40):


Sevan Matossian (14:40):

Dynamics. Yeah.

Greg Glassman (14:41):

Yeah. We’ve got to get you to lock onto a bill of bullshit goods before I’m going to get you to sign on to things that in normal times would be seen as profoundly wrong to the point of being just blatantly evil. That’s where we’re at.

Sevan Matossian (14:57):

I need you to believe that Greta Thunberg is a great leader for climate change. And then the next thing is, is like, Hey, let’s kill these people because you’ll believe anything.

Greg Glassman (15:06):

It’s on the way to, my mom’s got a cock and dad’s trying to get pregnant and don’t laugh. Or you’re a trans phobe

Sevan Matossian (15:21):

And you think that the CrossFit crowd,

Greg Glassman (15:22):

There’s the one islamaphobe who’s afraid of Islam. Well, I think a lot of people are afraid of Islam.

Sevan Matossian (15:31):

Well, the media portrays them as chanting death to the Jews. I mean, I’ve seen that every other week for 50 years.

Greg Glassman (15:38):

Hey, pick an Islamic country. You want to in and death to America. I have no religion. Is there an Islamic country I would want to live in? And the answer is no. And may have nothing to do with religion. It may have nothing to do with religion. What? UAE?

Sevan Matossian (15:56):

Well, no, I was maybe thinking Indonesia, but probably not. Shit could go sideways there. I was thinking like Bali, but actually I don’t think the actual island of Bali is Muslim. I think that’s where the minority religion is

Greg Glassman (16:16):

On the way here. We went through Qatar and Hamas, leadership lives there and the place is beautiful. I mean, it’s modern, it’s gorgeous. Unbelievable, but it’s not for me.

Sevan Matossian (16:32):

What do you think that those things, when you say that believing those things is an intellectual failing, I’ve heard you talk about that before, that the whole liberal mindset is an intellectual failing that you don’t get there through intellect. You don’t get there through two plus two is four or plant a tree today and in three years you’ll have fruit that there’s a failing somewhere of a connection of the dots.

Greg Glassman (16:55):

There was this line about if you’re not a socialist at 20, you have no heart, and if you’re a socialist at 60, you have no brain. I firmly believe that liberalism in adults is a failed intellectual development. Clearly. Clearly. I mean, I get the idea of rent control. We’re going to protect poor people. Right? And look what it does. It creates slums every single fucking time is what it does.

Sevan Matossian (17:27):

Yeah. It’s where all the crime is.

Greg Glassman (17:30):

It’s the way to create a slum out of a reasonable neighborhood in that rent control. The crazy minimum wage in California, McDonald’s come out, Hey, you know what? We’re going to have more kiosks. We’re going to have less employees. There’s going to be a tough competition for jobs and the price of everything is going to go up and we’re going to close stores,

Sevan Matossian (17:53):


Greg Glassman (17:54):

They just had a great quarter. By the way. McDonald’s is kicking ass right now.

Sevan Matossian (18:00):

More minimum wage increases hitting California employers soon. Effective January 1st, 2024. The general statewide minimum wage will increase by 50 cents, bringing the hourly rate from 1550 to 16. Caleb, I think that there’s an article I put in there that shows, actually in April it will be going to $20.

Greg Glassman (18:17):

Yeah, there is a date for a $20 figure. And that’s going to turn into,

Sevan Matossian (18:28):

You mean dirtier bathrooms, slower service, all that shit.

Greg Glassman (18:30):

Sure, sure, sure.

Sevan Matossian (18:35):

All under the guise of it being nice. So they have this idea, but they don’t consider what the outcome is. They just like the idea. I mean, that’s what you’re saying.

Greg Glassman (18:43):

There are young people whose talents, and let’s just call it talents and station in life, makes them a good deal at $12 an hour and an absurdity of 20, and they’re going to be driven out of the job market. So you can count on unemployment and increased prices that combined with the Blue City law enforcement is going to push Mickey D’s out of shitty areas.

Sevan Matossian (19:18):

Oh, you know someone else, this guy Josh Grow, I saw a post of his where he was supporting Wiener, the guy out of San Francisco that we met with. Wiener was also one of the ones supporting the law that would make it illegal to interview parents or to do investigations on babies that died within the first seven days of being born. And I guess that would be the moral failing to actually pass a law saying that the baby died in the first seven days of its life. You couldn’t investigate it. I know

Greg Glassman (19:55):

When we sold the company, they want to know who got our sales department. We don’t see any data on sales department. What would they sell? It’s like affiliation. And so they had this vision of people cold calling. I don’t know. What is it? When we sat across the table at Reebok, we were introduced to their CMO and Dave kicks me under the table and writes on a notepad, what’s ACMO? And I wrote back, it’s the Chief M officer. I don’t know what the fuck it is either, but we didn’t do marketing. What we did was fitness. We were experts on health, wellness and sickness and knew nothing of marketing and didn’t care about marketing. We weren’t trying to market anything.

Sevan Matossian (20:44):

I want to come back to that.

Greg Glassman (20:46):

ACMO is find quickly that he’s got nothing to do that’s going to help people that are running a gym. Hey, it took an enormous intellectual effort on my part, lots of consternation and contemplation interview and looking around to realize that we at the HQ could only find success in supporting the affiliates and doing those things they couldn’t do for themselves. And that looked like defensive defending against predatory legislation going on the offense with litigation, validating the methods of the affiliate and education further along those lines as to the value of what they were doing. So it came down to validation and education, litigation and legislation, all those things that you couldn’t do because you were cleaning your bathroom and training and taking care of people. And I still can’t imagine anything other than that having any kind of value to ’em.

Sevan Matossian (21:49):

Real big picture, what you used to tell me about media, the direction you would give me. Obviously some of the really big picture things was obviously do the right things for the right reasons for the right people. You would also say, don’t ever make anything that’s selling anything. Always make thing that’s adding value. You would always say, Hey, speak directly to the affiliates. Give the affiliates content that speaks to them. Because people would say to you, well, Greg, people who don’t do CrossFit aren’t going to understand this. And you’re like, well, the affiliates will understand it. I’m making stuff for my fucking affiliates. You really like speaking to the inside crowd. You changed that a little bit as we crossed over into 2017 and 18, and we started focusing more on the cure for the world’s most vaccine problem.


Those are things that I don’t think that they, oh, here’s another thing. We would post something in the journal, let’s say some, a video on squat therapy, and then we would want to put a link in there for more. Feel free to buy a seminar. And you’d be like, no, don’t put that in there. And we would argue with you and be like, but Greg, if people might want more and they might want to buy a seminar, you’re like, dude, I’m not trying to sell seminars and something that’s a fucking hard thing to get someone to get their head wrapped around. Right?

Greg Glassman (23:05):

Hey, there was a point where we had experts on bit delivery on and told us that this free information does well until you get to, what was it? I don’t remember the number. I’d hate to make numbers up to, but I think seven or 10 terabytes a month and you’re going to go broke quickly after that. That experience has proven that over and over again. And Brian offered up, well, we delivered 40 terabytes last month and we’re growing at 15 to 20% annually. So they had it exactly wrong. Exactly wrong. I had countless times business people, and after a while they were considerably less successful. We had been telling us that the thousand dollars seminar was a mistake. You need to make it $999 and 95 cents.

Sevan Matossian (23:52):

Oh, I remember

Greg Glassman (23:53):

Percent more. And I’m like, you know what? If you don’t realize $999 and 95 cents is a fucking thousand dollars, I don’t want you sitting in a chair by seminar.

Sevan Matossian (24:04):

You never, I remember one time, the first time Reebok tried to do a sale on our gear and you called up fucking the CEO O over there and mashed him. We don’t put our shit on sale.

Greg Glassman (24:17):

We got hit in Europe with the value added tax. And so all the experts says, you just have to raise the cost of your seminar. And I go, fuck I, my seminar is still a thousand dollars plus. Here’s what your country’s going to take from you.

Sevan Matossian (24:31):


Greg Glassman (24:32):

I’m not collecting that. That’s them,

Sevan Matossian (24:34):

Right. Barry Ner, what is that? Some orange mango tea you’re drinking?

Greg Glassman (24:42):

I don’t know what it is, but it’s

Sevan Matossian (24:43):

Does it have caffeine? Looks like it is your morning drink. Yeah,

Greg Glassman (24:46):

It’s got caffeine and it’s not sweet. It’s got a sourness to it, so I’m kind of cool with it.

Sevan Matossian (24:51):

Are you in a boat or are you in a room?

Greg Glassman (24:53):

No, we actually got off the boat yesterday and came to a hotel here. The sixth sense. It’s absolutely magnificent. Four seasons kind of quality.

Sevan Matossian (25:06):

Is that a window behind you?

Greg Glassman (25:09):

No, but there’s one in front of me.

Sevan Matossian (25:12):

Oh, good lighting. Barry, Barry, mcc. Barry Ner.

Greg Glassman (25:19):

I love it. Hi. I would’ve missed that.

Sevan Matossian (25:22):

I know. I was trying to hint it off to you too obvious, Caleb,

Greg Glassman (25:27):

Why aren’t we holding maybe a little more subtle on this? Why accountable? I think,

Sevan Matossian (25:30):

Let read this real quick, Greg, for the people who, because the vast majority of people listen to the podcast, they don’t see it. Why aren’t we holding Mr. Don fall accountable? He’s the one making the hiring decisions deco and grow. Why aren’t we holding him accountable for the last two hires?

Greg Glassman (25:48):

I think he’s an honorable guy. I think he’s a good guy. And I think he’s trying hard and I think he has an impossible task. I think I’ve said before where I tasked with ringing every fucking scent out of this thing that I possibly could. I don’t know what I would do. But again, I built an organization that I would eagerly participate in, and none of that had anything to do with seeing how much revenue I could extract from the affiliates. And he has an obligation to do that. And that obligation is a fiduciary obligation to the shareholders. And they’ve hired ’em to do that. And it’s a job I wouldn’t take chiefly because I have no sense of how I could do it. Because from my reference point at the point that you want me selling shoes in my gym and we’ve got CrossFit aid and CrossFit, jump ropes and CrossFit dumbbells, and the things become predatory towards rogue, which is inevitability, I would be out. And so I don’t have a sense of how you do that without losing everyone. And they’re not going to be able to do it. They’re not going to be able to turn the, what is it, nine, 10,000 affiliates left. They’re not going to be able to turn that into nine or 10,000 points of presence or points of sale.


The best Don could do, I think, would be to protect the people like Dale King and Josh Honeycutt the best he could is this thing unwinds and ends up packaged and sold for someone else to exploit.

Sevan Matossian (27:16):

What do you mean as this thing unwinds?

Greg Glassman (27:18):

Well, I think it’s in collapse,

Sevan Matossian (27:21):

Right? Well, I was actually thinking this morning that it’s dead, but not in a bad way. Dead. It’s like a skeleton. And basically the leader of this company has to be able to be so raw and authentic that if anyone says anything, you’re comfortable just saying, fuck off.

Greg Glassman (27:39):

The people that own this thing have no sense of what they own. None at all. None at all. They couldn’t begin to explain Craig Howard or Dale King or Josh Honeycutt. They couldn’t begin to, and everything they do will be irritating and foreign to them, and they’re sticking around out of some brand loyalty. But the truth of the matter is that the entirety of it is in wonderfully good shape because the magic lies in the relationship that each of those good men and women have with the people that come into their box. And if you don’t call it CrossFit at some point and you just call it Craig’s gym, it will be just as good. It’s not made better by being called CrossFit.

Sevan Matossian (28:20):

Affiliate I have on here says They’re doing great. They’re having fun. They don’t really, they know everything’s being fucked up, but in their doors, behind their doors, shit’s great. The miracles happening. Of

Greg Glassman (28:30):

Course. Yes. And that’s why in the struggle for legitimacy, for utility, for relevance, that’s the word in our struggle for relevance. We came up with this validation, education, legislation and litigation. And so when the soda pop decides the CrossFit’s got to go and they pay the NSCA to fake some data on a study with is we sue ’em into the next fucking time zone. And it was very effective. So what happens in new ownership? Settle that suit in silence. It stinks to high heaven.

Sevan Matossian (29:08):

The NSCA case, do you think we’ll ever know? Yes.

Greg Glassman (29:13):

Yeah, I do.

Sevan Matossian (29:15):

By Evernote you think it’ll public? You think it’ll be public?

Greg Glassman (29:18):

I think it’s going to leak. I think someone’s going to come forward. Like the guys had sat with Brett ERs in the bar in DC telling them that they worked for, not pedestrian group, but another lobbying organization that was working for the American Beverage Association announced the Coca-Cola campaign Operation Sparkle to unseat me. By the way, the gym here at this hotel is techno gym, and that’s basically Coca-Cola. They were the proud co-sponsors of exercises, medicine. When Coke made its enormously successful foray into the fitness space through exercises, medicine, and actually got it baked into the Affordable Care Act. I mean, I’m.

The above transcript is generated using AI technology and therefore may contain errors.

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